Identity & Breed of Indian Desi Cow

Indian cow stands out when compared with its overseas counterparts. It is easy to identify Indian cow just by observing these 2 features

1.    Hump: All Indian cows & bulls have hump on their back. This provides them advantage to carry more load
2.    Dewlap: Indian cows develop a fold of loose skin hanging below neck. Dewlap provides high heat resistant capacity and makes desi cows & bulls sustain in all environments

Just with a simple observation of these features, one can easily identify an Indian cow and differentiate between exotic breed.

India has a rich heritage of cultivating breeds of desi cows. Different breeds of cow developed in different atmospheric & geographic conditions. They vary in some attributes or others but all of them display the characteristics of hump & dewlap. 

Different breeds found in India are

Hallikar (हल्लीकर)
It is among the best of the drought breeds In south India. Most of the present day south Indian breeds have originated from the Hallikar. Hallikar is typical Mysore breed cattle found mainly in Mysore, Mandy, Bangalore, Kolar, Tumkur Hassan and Chitradurga districts of Karnataka.

Punganor (पौगनुर)
This breed is short horned cattle found in Vayalpado. Madanapali and Palamaner talukas of Chilton, district of Andhra Pradesh.
Used for agricultural operations on light soils.
This breed is almost on the verge of extinction.

Malvi (मालवी)
Primarily draught breed, Miich type of cattle. It encompasses a large area comprising Indore, Dewas, Ujjain Shajapur, Mandsaur districts of M.P.
Malvi bollocks are known for quick transportation and able to carry heavy loads on rough roads.

Nagauri (नागौरी)
This , being reputed breed, is primarily reared for draught quality of its bullocks.
Home breed lies in the Navin district of Rajasthan in Western hulia and also in the adjoining Jodhpur district and Nokha district.
Its population is decreasing at a remarkable rate since the dense used for bullocks is decreasing.

Rathi (राठी)
This is important milch breed of cattle found in the western part of Rajasthan.
The home tract lies in the heart of Thar desert and includes Bikaner, Ganganagar and Jaisalmer district.
These animales are different from grey-white Hariana type animals called Rathi found in Alwar region of Rajasthan.

Red Kandhari
This breed of cattle is found in Kanpur and Nanded district. some pockets of other districts like Ahmadpur, Parli & Hingoli tehsil of Latur district & Bid, Parbhani districts of Marathwada region.

Sahiwal (साहीवाल)
Synonyms- Lambl Bar, Lota, Multani, Montgomery, Teli.
This breed is one of the important dairy breeds of zabu cattle. Original breeding tract lies in Pakistan, but also found in Indo-Pak border in Ferozpur & Amritser(Punjab), Ganganagar(Rajasthan).
It is known to have been introduced into 17 other countries besides India & Pakistan.

Khari (खेरी,खेरीगड़, खैरी)
(Synonym Kheri, Kherimirh, Khari) This breed is closely allied to the Malvi breed & mostly Found in Lakimpur - Khen district of U.P. but some animals are also found in admining district. Population of this breed has decreased considerable over the last few years.

Shikari (मन्देशी,शिकारी)
(Synonyms Mandeshi, Shikari) This breed is known for the quick drought capabilities of its bullocks and it is found in Kolhapur, Solapur, Sangli and Satara districts of Maharashtra and Belgaum, Bijapur districts of Karnataka. This breed seems to have originated from Hallikar or Amrithmahal breed of cattle.

Krishna Valley (कृष्णा वैली)
(Synonym Krishna Valley) This breed being a heavy drought breed is used exclusively in the black cotton soil of the watershed of the River Krishna. Mainly found in Solapur, Sangli and Satara districts of Maharashtra and Bijapur districts of Karnataka.

Mewati (मेवाती)
This breed of cattle is synonymous with Kosi, Mehwati.
This breed is found in the tract known as Mewat, Comprising Alwar & Bharatpur districts of Rajsthan; Mathura, Kosi in Western U.p., Faridabad & Gurgaon districts of Haryana.

Ongole (औंगोले)
This breed belong to short-horned group zebus which were brought by Aryans in India more than 4000 years ago. Original stock from north-west to Indus river basin and future to Indo-Gangetic plains and towards south along Godavari, Krishna and Perunar basins. The Nallore or Ongole breed's hardiness disease resistance and its capacity to thrive on scantly and dry fodder have been successfully manoeuver exploited improving and upgrading the local stock of Europian origins.

Deoni (देवनी नस्ल)
Very Popular dual purpose breed of cattle from Marathvada region of Maharashtra and synonymous with Dongerpati, Dongari, Wannera, Waghyd, Balankya & Shevera.
Breed is said to have been developed from Gir cattle about 280-300 years back following their migration from Gujarat in search of fodder during scarcity periods to southern parts of country.this migration of Girs to Marathwada led to the increasing asmixture of Gir blood with local herd, contributing to Deoni breed.

Gir (गीर नस्ल)
Very good milk breed, synonymous with Bhodali, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi, Surati.
World renowned breed for its tolerance to stress conditions.
Adapted to scarcity conditions for years, this breed has devloped capacity for yielding more milk with less feeding, beside having resistance to various tropical diseases.

Hariana (हरियाणा)
Dual purpose breed of Northern India, which was primarily reared for bullock production. This breed is one of the most widely spread breed in the Indo-Gangetic plains. They are similar to the Gaolao, Mewati & Ongole breeds while sahabadi & Gangatiri are closely related types.
Nature breeding tract encompasses large parts of Rohtak, Hissar, jind and Gurgaon districs of Haryana.They are reared & widely distributed in Jodhpur, Alwar, Lohani & Bharatpur districts of Rajsthan & Meerut, Bulandshahar, Aligarh districs of western Uttar Pradesh.

Kankrej (काँकरेज)
This breed is among the heaviest breeds of cattle in India, which plays very important role in the economy of the region.
Kankrej breed of cattle deriving its name from Kankerj part of Gujrat are mostly found in southeast Rann of Kutch comprising Mehsana, Ahmedabad, Kaira, Sabarkantha & Banashantha district of Gujarat & Badmer, Jodhpur, district of Rajasthan.

Vechur (वैचूर)
This breed is found in Kerala, also available in Kasargod district.
Considering the importance of this breed to the local people, the ICAR initiated a scheme for the conservation of Vechur breed.

Tharparkar (थारपारकर)
Synomyms: White Sindhi, gray Sindi, Thari.
This breed is an important dual-purpose breed raised for its milking potential. Animals found in Indo-Pak border, Western Rajasthan, Rann of Kutch in Gujrat.

Bargur (बरगूर नस्ल)
This breed is found around Bargur hills in Bharani Taluka of Erode district, Tamilnadu.
These animals are of Mysore type, but smaller and more compact. They are very restive and fiery in disposition and difficult to train.
Light in build and developed mainly for carrying our agricultural operations in the uneven and hilly terrain.
Cattle of this breed are unsurpassed in speed and endurance in trotting.

Dangi (डांगी नस्ल)
Draught Breed, synonymous with kanada, Konkani and Ghoti.
Breed found in a small area of nasik and ahmednagar district of Maharashtra including the Dang area of western ghats , hence the name ‘Dangi’. This breed has excellent working qualities in heavy rainfall areas, rice fields and hilly tracts.

Nimari (निमाड़ी)
Synonyms: Khargaon, Khargoni, Khurgoni
This breed is found in Nimar tract of Narmada valley in Madhya Pradesh comprising Khandwa, Khargon and Barwani Districts. Some animals are also found in Jalgaon district in Maharashtra. Animals are active. Bullocks are known for their drought work.

Red Sindhi (लाल सिंधी)
Synonyms: Malir (Baluchisthan) Red Karachi and Sindhi.
This breed is mostly found in Karachi and Hyderabad district of Pakistan. Also found in Odisha, Tamilnadu, Bihar, Kerala & Assam states in India.
This breed is originated from Las Bela cattle. Orignal herd was established at Malir outside Karachi.
Red Sindhi is one of the important dairy cattle in Indian sub-continent. These cows are exported to many countries.

Umblachery (उंब्लाचेरी)
Synonyms: Jathi madu, Mottai madu, molai madu, souther, Tanjore, Therkathi madu.
This breed of cattle, one of the best breeds of Tamilnadu, is found in Thanjavur and Nagapattinam districts.
This breed is considered to be developed by crossing Kangayam with local animals .
These are light built draught animals developed for work in the marshy paddy fields . 60-70% of cattle in this area belong to this breed. Estimated population is 283,000.

Purnea (पोंवार)
Synonym: Purnea
Small hill type breed found in the Pilibhit district of U.P., Mainakot, Mazara, Bhikhera, Faizulagani and Rajpur Semra villages and Lakhimpur-Kheri district.
This breed is maintained for drought operations. Bullocks are fast movers and good source of income to the farmers.

There are many other indigenous breeds that are found in different parts of Indina.

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